Allan Douglas Kirk

Allan Douglas Kirk

David C. Sabiston, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Surgery

I am a surgeon with interest in immune management of transplant recipients. I am particularly interested in therapies that influence T cell costimulation pathways and adjuvant therapies that facilitate costimulation blockade to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs without undue suppression of protective immunity. I am also interested in understanding how injury, such as that occurring during trauma or in elective surgery, influences immune responses and subsequent healing following injury.

Appointments and Affiliations

  • David C. Sabiston, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Surgery
  • Professor of Surgery
  • Chair of Surgery
  • Professor in Integrative Immunobiology
  • Professor in Pediatrics
  • Core Faculty in Innovation & Entrepreneurship
  • Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Contact Information

  • Office Phone: +1 919 681 3445
  • Email Address:


  • University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1997
  • Duke University, 1995
  • Duke University, 1994
  • Duke University, 1992
  • Duke University, 1989
  • Ph.D. Duke University, 1992
  • M.D. Duke University, School of Medicine, 1987
  • B.S. Old Dominion University, 1983

Awards, Honors, and Distinctions

  • Member. National Academy of Medicine. 2016

Courses Taught

  • IMMUNOL 493: Research Independent Study

In the News

Representative Publications

  • Anderson, DJ; Lo, DJ; Leopardi, F; Song, M; Turgeon, NA; Strobert, EA; Jenkins, JB; Wang, R; Reimann, KA; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD, Anti-Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen 1 Therapy in a Nonhuman Primate Renal Transplant Model of Costimulation Blockade-Resistant Rejection., Am J Transplant, vol 16 no. 5 (2016), pp. 1456-1464 [10.1111/ajt.13628] [abs].
  • Espinosa, J; Herr, F; Tharp, G; Bosinger, S; Song, M; Farris, AB; George, R; Cheeseman, J; Stempora, L; Townsend, R; Durrbach, A; Kirk, AD, CD57(+) CD4 T Cells Underlie Belatacept-Resistant Allograft Rejection., Am J Transplant, vol 16 no. 4 (2016), pp. 1102-1112 [10.1111/ajt.13613] [abs].
  • Xu, H; Samy, KP; Guasch, A; Mead, SI; Ghali, A; Mehta, A; Stempora, L; Kirk, AD, Postdepletion Lymphocyte Reconstitution During Belatacept and Rapamycin Treatment in Kidney Transplant Recipients., Am J Transplant, vol 16 no. 2 (2016), pp. 550-564 [10.1111/ajt.13469] [abs].
  • Cooper, DKC; Bottino, R; Gianello, P; Graham, M; Hawthorne, WJ; Kirk, AD; Korsgren, O; Park, C-G; Weber, C, First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 4: pre-clinical efficacy and complication data required to justify a clinical trial., Xenotransplantation, vol 23 no. 1 (2016), pp. 46-52 [10.1111/xen.12226] [abs].
  • Freedman, BI; Pastan, SO; Israni, AK; Schladt, D; Julian, BA; Gautreaux, MD; Hauptfeld, V; Bray, RA; Gebel, HM; Kirk, AD; Gaston, RS; Rogers, J; Farney, AC; Orlando, G; Stratta, RJ; Mohan, S; Ma, L; Langefeld, CD; Bowden, DW; Hicks, PJ; Palmer, ND; Palanisamy, A; Reeves-Daniel, AM; Brown, WM; Divers, J, APOL1 Genotype and Kidney Transplantation Outcomes From Deceased African American Donors., Transplantation, vol 100 no. 1 (2016), pp. 194-202 [10.1097/TP.0000000000000969] [abs].
  • Elder, RW; George, RP; McCabe, NM; Rodriguez, FH; Book, WM; Mahle, WT; Kirk, AD, Immunologic Aging in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Does Infant Sternotomy Matter?, Pediatr Cardiol, vol 36 no. 7 (2015), pp. 1411-1416 [10.1007/s00246-015-1174-9] [abs].
  • Cendales, L; Bray, R; Gebel, H; Brewster, L; Elbein, R; Farthing, D; Song, M; Parker, D; Stillman, A; Pearson, T; Kirk, AD, Tacrolimus to Belatacept Conversion Following Hand Transplantation: A Case Report., Am J Transplant, vol 15 no. 8 (2015), pp. 2250-2255 [10.1111/ajt.13217] [abs].
  • Freitas, AM; Samy, KP; Farris, AB; Leopardi, FV; Song, M; Stempora, L; Strobert, EA; Jenkins, JA; Kirk, AD; Cendales, LC, Studies Introducing Costimulation Blockade for Vascularized Composite Allografts in Nonhuman Primates., Am J Transplant, vol 15 no. 8 (2015), pp. 2240-2249 [10.1111/ajt.13379] [abs].
  • Mou, D; Espinosa, JE; Stempora, L; Iwakoshi, NN; Kirk, AD, Viral-induced CD28 loss evokes costimulation independent alloimmunity., J Surg Res, vol 196 no. 2 (2015), pp. 241-246 [10.1016/j.jss.2015.02.033] [abs].
  • Beasley, GM; Pappas, TN; Kirk, AD, Procedure Delegation by Attending Surgeons Performing Concurrent Operations in Academic Medical Centers: Balancing Safety and Efficiency., Ann Surg, vol 261 no. 6 (2015), pp. 1044-1045 [10.1097/SLA.0000000000001208] [abs].
  • Lo, DJ; Anderson, DJ; Song, M; Leopardi, F; Farris, AB; Strobert, E; Chapin, S; Devens, B; Karrer, E; Kirk, AD, A pilot trial targeting the ICOS-ICOS-L pathway in nonhuman primate kidney transplantation., Am J Transplant, vol 15 no. 4 (2015), pp. 984-992 [10.1111/ajt.13100] [abs].
  • Gupta, NA; Kolachala, VL; Jiang, R; Abramowsky, C; Shenoi, A; Kosters, A; Pavuluri, H; Anania, F; Kirk, AD, Mitigation of autophagy ameliorates hepatocellular damage following ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine steatotic liver., Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, vol 307 no. 11 (2014), pp. G1088-G1099 [10.1152/ajpgi.00210.2014] [abs].
  • Mou, D; Espinosa, J; Lo, DJ; Kirk, AD, CD28 negative T cells: is their loss our gain?, Am J Transplant, vol 14 no. 11 (2014), pp. 2460-2466 [10.1111/ajt.12937] [abs].
  • Kirk, AD; Guasch, A; Xu, H; Cheeseman, J; Mead, SI; Ghali, A; Mehta, AK; Wu, D; Gebel, H; Bray, R; Horan, J; Kean, LS; Larsen, CP; Pearson, TC, Renal transplantation using belatacept without maintenance steroids or calcineurin inhibitors., Am J Transplant, vol 14 no. 5 (2014), pp. 1142-1151 [10.1111/ajt.12712] [abs].
  • Lo, DJ; Kaplan, B; Kirk, AD, Biomarkers for kidney transplant rejection., Nat Rev Nephrol, vol 10 no. 4 (2014), pp. 215-225 [10.1038/nrneph.2013.281] [abs].
  • Xu, H; Perez, SD; Cheeseman, J; Mehta, AK; Kirk, AD, The allo- and viral-specific immunosuppressive effect of belatacept, but not tacrolimus, attenuates with progressive T cell maturation., Am J Transplant, vol 14 no. 2 (2014), pp. 319-332 [10.1111/ajt.12574] [abs].
  • Samy, KP; Martin, BM; Turgeon, NA; Kirk, AD, Islet cell xenotransplantation: a serious look toward the clinic., Xenotransplantation, vol 21 no. 3 (2014), pp. 221-229 [10.1111/xen.12095] [abs].
  • Lowe, MC; Badell, IR; Turner, AP; Thompson, PW; Leopardi, FV; Strobert, EA; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD, Belatacept and sirolimus prolong nonhuman primate islet allograft survival: adverse consequences of concomitant alefacept therapy., Am J Transplant, vol 13 no. 2 (2013), pp. 312-319 [10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04341.x] [abs].
  • Lo, DJ; Anderson, DJ; Weaver, TA; Leopardi, F; Song, M; Farris, AB; Strobert, EA; Jenkins, J; Turgeon, NA; Mehta, AK; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD, Belatacept and sirolimus prolong nonhuman primate renal allograft survival without a requirement for memory T cell depletion., Am J Transplant, vol 13 no. 2 (2013), pp. 320-328 [10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04342.x] [abs].
  • Charafeddine, AH; Kim, EJ; Maynard, DM; Yi, H; Weaver, TA; Gunay-Aygun, M; Russell, M; Gahl, WA; Kirk, AD, Platelet-derived CD154: ultrastructural localization and clinical correlation in organ transplantation., Am J Transplant, vol 12 no. 11 (2012), pp. 3143-3151 [10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04241.x] [abs].
  • Thompson, P; Badell, IR; Lowe, M; Turner, A; Cano, J; Avila, J; Azimzadeh, A; Cheng, X; Pierson, RN; Johnson, B; Robertson, J; Song, M; Leopardi, F; Strobert, E; Korbutt, G; Rayat, G; Rajotte, R; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD, Alternative immunomodulatory strategies for xenotransplantation: CD40/154 pathway-sparing regimens promote xenograft survival., Am J Transplant, vol 12 no. 7 (2012), pp. 1765-1775 [10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04031.x] [abs].
  • Lo, DJ; Weaver, TA; Stempora, L; Mehta, AK; Ford, ML; Larsen, CP; Kirk, AD, Selective targeting of human alloresponsive CD8+ effector memory T cells based on CD2 expression., Am J Transplant, vol 11 no. 1 (2011), pp. 22-33 [10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03317.x] [abs].
  • Newell, KA; Asare, A; Kirk, AD; Gisler, TD; Bourcier, K; Suthanthiran, M; Burlingham, WJ; Marks, WH; Sanz, I; Lechler, RI; Hernandez-Fuentes, MP; Turka, LA; Seyfert-Margolis, VL; Immune Tolerance Network ST507 Study Group, , Identification of a B cell signature associated with renal transplant tolerance in humans., J Clin Invest, vol 120 no. 6 (2010), pp. 1836-1847 [10.1172/JCI39933] [abs].