William Robert Lee

W. Robert Lee

Professor of Radiation Oncology

Prostate cancer, Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), Prostate HDR and LDR Brachytherapy, Quality of Life, Educational Technology

Appointments and Affiliations

  • Professor of Radiation Oncology
  • Associate Professor of Urology
  • Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Contact Information

  • Office Location: 201 Trent Drive, Box 3085, Durham, NC 27710
  • Office Phone: +1 919 668 5640
  • Email Address: w.robert.lee@duke.edu


  • M.S. Wake Forest University, 2000
  • M.D. University of Virginia, 1989

In the News

Representative Publications

  • Lawton, CAF; Michalski, J; El-Naqa, I; Kuban, D; Lee, WR; Rosenthal, SA; Zietman, A; Sandler, H; Shipley, W; Ritter, M; Valicenti, R; Catton, C; Roach, M; Pisansky, TM; Seider, M, Variation in the definition of clinical target volumes for pelvic nodal conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 74 no. 2 (2009), pp. 377-382 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.08.003] [abs].
  • Lawton, CAF; Michalski, J; El-Naqa, I; Buyyounouski, MK; Lee, WR; Menard, C; O'Meara, E; Rosenthal, SA; Ritter, M; Seider, M, RTOG GU Radiation oncology specialists reach consensus on pelvic lymph node volumes for high-risk prostate cancer., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 74 no. 2 (2009), pp. 383-387 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.08.002] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, The ethics of hypofractionation for prostate cancer., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 73 no. 4 (2009), pp. 969-970 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.11.022] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Extreme hypofractionation for prostate cancer., Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, vol 9 no. 1 (2009), pp. 61-65 [10.1586/14737140.9.1.61] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Technology assessment: vigilance required., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 70 no. 3 (2008), pp. 652-653 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.09.030] [abs].
  • Wu, QJ; Thongphiew, D; Wang, Z; Mathayomchan, B; Chankong, V; Yoo, S; Lee, WR; Yin, F-F, On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy., Phys Med Biol, vol 53 no. 3 (2008), pp. 673-691 [10.1088/0031-9155/53/3/011] [abs].
  • Miles, EF; Lee, WR, Hypofractionation for prostate cancer: a critical review., Semin Radiat Oncol, vol 18 no. 1 (2008), pp. 41-47 [10.1016/j.semradonc.2007.09.006] [abs].
  • Rossi, PJ; Urbanic, J; Clark, PE; McCullough, DL; Lee, WR, Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen velocity is associated with freedom from biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy alone., Brachytherapy, vol 7 no. 4 (2008), pp. 286-289 [10.1016/j.brachy.2008.08.004] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Reducing biochemical recurrence rates in EBRT-treated prostate cancer patients: the influence of dose and dose per fraction., Future Oncol, vol 3 no. 6 (2007), pp. 649-654 [10.2217/14796694.3.6.649] [abs].
  • Yacoub, J; Richardson, C; Farmer, M; Lee, WR; Clark, PE; Hurt, G; Levine, EA, Male breast cancer during treatment with leuprolide for prostate cancer., Clin Adv Hematol Oncol, vol 5 no. 7 (2007), pp. 555-556 [abs].
  • Lee, WR; Bae, K; Lawton, C; Gillin, M; Morton, G; Firat, S; Baikadi, M; Kuettel, M; Greven, K; Sandler, H, Late toxicity and biochemical recurrence after external-beam radiotherapy combined with permanent-source prostate brachytherapy: analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 0019., Cancer, vol 109 no. 8 (2007), pp. 1506-1512 [10.1002/cncr.22560] [abs].
  • Papagikos, MA; Rossi, PJ; Urbanic, JJ; deGuzman, AF; McCullough, DL; Clark, PE; Lee, WR, A simple model predicts freedom from biochemical recurrence after low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy alone., Am J Clin Oncol, vol 30 no. 2 (2007), pp. 199-204 [10.1097/01.coc.0000251402.85009.af] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; Sharkey, J; Cowan, JE; DuChane, J; Carroll, PR; CaPSURE Investigators, , Prostate brachytherapy: a descriptive analysis from CaPSURE., Brachytherapy, vol 6 no. 2 (2007), pp. 123-128 [10.1016/j.brachy.2007.01.007] [abs].
  • Lawton, CA; DeSilvio, M; Lee, WR; Gomella, L; Grignon, D; Gillin, M; Morton, G; Pisansky, T; Sandler, H, Results of a phase II trial of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive implantation of the prostate for definitive management of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (radiation therapy oncology group 98-05)., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 67 no. 1 (2007), pp. 39-47 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.08.016] [abs].
  • Phillips, JJ; Hall, MC; Lee, WR; Clark, PE, Does a delay in initiating definitive therapy affect biochemical recurrence rates in men with clinically localized prostate cancer?, Urol Oncol, vol 25 no. 3 (2007), pp. 196-200 [10.1016/j.urolonc.2006.06.004] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; Moul, JW, Can prostate-specific antigen nadir predict prostate cancer outcomes following radiotherapy?, Nat Clin Pract Oncol, vol 3 no. 10 (2006), pp. 534-535 [10.1038/ncponc0612] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Computer-based learning in medical education: a critical view., J Am Coll Radiol, vol 3 no. 10 (2006), pp. 793-798 [10.1016/j.jacr.2006.02.010] [abs].
  • Urbanic, JJ; Lee, WR, Confidence intervals and survival estimates: a systematic review of 3 oncology journals., Am J Clin Oncol, vol 29 no. 4 (2006), pp. 405-407 [10.1097/01.coc.0000227525.96972.2f] [abs].
  • Clark, PE; Hall, MC; Borden, LS; Miller, AA; Hu, JJ; Lee, WR; Stindt, D; D'Agostino, R; Lovato, J; Harmon, M; Torti, FM, Phase I-II prospective dose-escalating trial of lycopene in patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer after definitive local therapy., Urology, vol 67 no. 6 (2006), pp. 1257-1261 [10.1016/j.urology.2005.12.035] [abs].
  • Urbanic, JJ; Lee, WR, Update on brachytherapy in localized prostate cancer: the importance of dosimetry., Curr Opin Urol, vol 16 no. 3 (2006), pp. 157-161 [10.1097/01.mou.0000193391.77469.39] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; DeSilvio, M; Lawton, C; Gillin, M; Morton, G; Firat, S; Baikadi, M; Kuettel, M; Greven, K; Sandler, H, A phase II study of external beam radiotherapy combined with permanent source brachytherapy for intermediate-risk, clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: preliminary results of RTOG P-0019., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 64 no. 3 (2006), pp. 804-809 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.09.002] [abs].
  • Rossi, PJ; Clark, PE; Papagikos, MA; McCullough, DL; Lee, WR, Percentage of positive biopsies associated with freedom from biochemical recurrence after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy alone for clinically localized prostate cancer., Urology, vol 67 no. 2 (2006), pp. 349-353 [10.1016/j.urology.2005.08.047] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; Bae, K; Lawton, CA; Gillin, MT; Morton, G; Firat, S; Baikadi, M; Kuettel, M; Greven, K; Sandler, H, A descriptive analysis of postimplant dosimetric parameters from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group P0019., Brachytherapy, vol 5 no. 4 (2006), pp. 239-243 [10.1016/j.brachy.2006.08.005] [abs].
  • Feigenberg, SJ; Lee, WR; Desilvio, ML; Winter, K; Pisansky, TM; Bruner, DW; Lawton, C; Morton, G; Baikadi, M; Sandler, H, Health-related quality of life in men receiving prostate brachytherapy on RTOG 98-05., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 62 no. 4 (2005), pp. 956-964 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.12.061] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, What variables predict for metastasis in men with biochemical relapse following radiotherapy for prostate cancer?, Nat Clin Pract Oncol, vol 2 no. 7 (2005), pp. 340-341 [10.1038/ncponc0223] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Is NNT AOK?, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 61 no. 3 (2005), pp. 640-641 [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.10.029] [abs].
  • Papagikos, MA; Deguzman, AF; Rossi, PJ; McCullough, DL; Clark, PE; Lee, WR, Dosimetric quantifiers for low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy: is V(100) superior to D(90)?, Brachytherapy, vol 4 no. 4 (2005), pp. 252-258 [10.1016/j.brachy.2005.09.001] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Changes in graduate medical education: a view from radiation oncology., J Am Coll Radiol, vol 1 no. 8 (2004), pp. 576-582 [10.1016/j.jacr.2004.03.013] [abs].
  • McMullen, KP; deGuzman, AF; McCullough, DL; Lee, WR, Cancer control after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy performed by a multidisciplinary team with no previous prostate brachytherapy experience., Urology, vol 63 no. 6 (2004), pp. 1128-1131 [10.1016/j.urology.2003.12.031] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, In regards to Wallner et al: (125)I versus (103)PD for low-risk prostate cancer: preliminary PSA outcomes from a prospective randomized multicenter trial (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57:1297-1303)., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 59 no. 1 (2004) [10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.01.010] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Re: Dosimetric consequences of increased seed strength for I-125 prostate implants. Radiother Oncol. 2003 Sep;68(3):295-7., Radiother Oncol, vol 70 no. 2 (2004), pp. 209-210 [10.1016/j.radonc.2003.11.012] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Medical malpractice and prostate brachytherapy., Brachytherapy, vol 3 no. 4 (2004), pp. 237-239 [10.1016/j.brachy.2004.10.001] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Permanent prostate brachytherapy: the significance of postimplant dosimetry., Rev Urol, vol 6 Suppl 4 no. Suppl 4 (2004), pp. S49-S56 [abs].
  • Lee, WR, In regard to Ghaly et al., IJROBP 2003;55:1288-1293., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 57 no. 4 (2003) [10.1016/s0360-3016(03)00745-4] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; Moughan, J; Owen, JB; Zelefsky, MJ, The 1999 patterns of care study of radiotherapy in localized prostate carcinoma: a comprehensive survey of prostate brachytherapy in the United States., Cancer, vol 98 no. 9 (2003), pp. 1987-1994 [10.1002/cncr.11774] [abs].
  • McMullen, KP; Lee, WR, A structured literature review to determine the use of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition of biochemical failure., Urology, vol 61 no. 2 (2003), pp. 391-396 [10.1016/s0090-4295(02)02259-8] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; deGuzman, AF; Tomlinson, SK; McCullough, DL, Radioactive sources embedded in suture are associated with improved postimplant dosimetry in men treated with prostate brachytherapy., Radiother Oncol, vol 65 no. 2 (2002), pp. 123-127 [10.1016/s0167-8140(02)00305-5] [abs].
  • Lee, WR; Roach, M; Michalski, J; Moran, B; Beyer, D, Interobserver variability leads to significant differences in quantifiers of prostate implant adequacy., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 54 no. 2 (2002), pp. 457-461 [10.1016/s0360-3016(02)02950-4] [abs].
  • Carroll, PR; Kantoff, PW; Balk, SP; Brown, MA; D'amico, AV; George, DJ; Grossfeld, GD; Johnson, CS; Kelly, WK; Klotz, L; Lee, WR; Lubeck, DP; Mcleod, DG; Oh, WK; Pollack, A; Sartor, O; Smith, MR; Hart, C; Second International Conference on Newer Approaches to Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) in Prostate Cancer, , Overview consensus statement. Newer approaches to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer., Urology, vol 60 no. 3 Suppl 1 (2002), pp. 1-6 [10.1016/s0090-4295(02)01559-5] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, The role of androgen deprivation therapy combined with prostate brachytherapy., Urology, vol 60 no. 3 Suppl 1 (2002), pp. 39-44 [10.1016/s0090-4295(02)01568-6] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, In regard to Brenner et al. Direct evidence that prostate tumors show high sensitivity to fractionation (low alpha/beta ratio) similar to late-responding normal tissue., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol 53 no. 5 (2002) [10.1016/s0360-3016(02)02859-6] [abs].
  • Lee, WR, Quality of life after prostate cancer treatment., J Clin Oncol, vol 20 no. 13 (2002) [10.1200/JCO.2002.20.13.3038] [abs].
  • Kiteley, RA; Lee, WR; deGuzman, AF; Mirzaei, M; McCullough, DL, Radiation dose to the neurovascular bundles or penile bulb does not predict erectile dysfunction after prostate brachytherapy., Brachytherapy, vol 1 no. 2 (2002), pp. 90-94 [10.1016/s1538-4721(02)00018-1] [abs].